pre-defined theme functions allow consistent style changes. What is the grammar of graphics? For example, a point geom has position, color, shape, and size aesthetics. Wilkinson, L. (2005), The Grammar of Graphics, 2nd ed., Springer. Published with Read chapters 1-4 from R for Data Science. Cartesian coordinate systems are most commonly used, so it should be the default. Here the color is determined by the class of the car (observation), Position determines the starting location (origin) of each bar. Even his organisation into chapters often seems arbitrary. "Warts and all, The Grammar of Graphics is a richly rewarding work, an outstanding achievement by one of the leaders of statistical graphics. The summaries are written by students themselves, which gives you the best possible insight into what is important to study about this book. The Grammar of Graphics((This concept is implemented in R using the ggplot2 package. A better map is obtained using the aspect ration 1 / longlat: The best approach to use a coordinate system designed specifically for maps. This is a powerful tool when investigating whether patterns are the same or different across conditions, and allows the subsets to be visualized on the same plot (known as conditioned or trellis plots). allows us to understand quantitative plots as we intuitively understand grammar in language. Here the height is based on the number of observations in the dataset for each possible number of cylinders. Many components and features are provided by default and do not need to be specified explicitly unless the defaults are to be changed. After all, itcontains all of the information you’re trying to convey. In language, rules of grammar are used to convey meaning when words are combined. Read 5 reviews from the world's largest community for readers. Grammar of Graphics In this lesson, you will learn about the grammar of graphics, and how its implementation in the ggplot2 package provides you with the flexibility to create a wide variety of sophisticated visualizations with little code. So, what is the grammar of graphics? Compared to base Vega, Vega-Lite introduces a view algebra for composing multiple views (including m… The faceting specification describes which variables should be used to split up the data, and how they should be arranged. A useful approach for showing time series data with a good aspect ration can be to split the data into facets for non-overlapping portions of the time axis. Preface to First Edition Before writing the graphics … Faceting uses the small multiples approach to introduce additional variables. You can think of a ‘grammar of graphics’ as a bit like the ultimate DSL for creating charts and visualisations. Position defines where each point is drawn on the plot, Color defines the color of each point. This is easiest to do with the ggmosaic package. We have used ggplot2 before when we were analyzing the bnames data. Wilkinson created the grammar of graphics to describe the fundamental features that underlie all statistical graphics. The layered grammar of graphics approach is implemented in ggplot2, a widely used graphics library for R. All graphics in this library are built using a layered approach, building layers up to create the final graphic. Plotting these in the default cartesian coordinate system usually does not work well: Using a fixed aspect ratio is better, but an aspect ratio of 1 does not work well: The problem is that away from the equator a one degree change in latitude corresponds to a larger distance than a one degree change in longitude. Scale functions are also responsible for producing guides for translating physical representations back to values, such as, There are 120 scale functions; some examples are. A blog post on use of R and ggplot by FiveThirtyEight. A promising approach is Vega-Lite, with a Python interface Altair and an R interface altair to the Python interface. Some alternate complete themes provided by ggplot2 are. Such a grammar allows us to move beyond named graphics (e.g., the ``scatterplot'') and gain insight into the deep structure that underlies statistical graphics. The graph could be drawn using a semi-log coordinate system which logarithmically compresses the distance on an axis: Or could even be drawn using polar coordinates: Faceting can be used to split the data up into subsets of the entire dataset. Grammar of Graphics is a layered object-oriented graphics generation framework that is proposed by Leland Wilkinson. May 20, 2014 - Explore Dear English Major's board "Grammar Graphics", followed by 712 people on Pinterest. For instance, whenever we want to use a bar geom, we can default to using a stat that counts the number of observations in each group of our variable in the $x$ position. Theme elements can be customized in several ways: The full documentation of the theme function lists many customizable elements. The Grammar of Graphics is a language proposed by Leland Wilkinson for describing statistical graphs. ---
title: "The Grammar of Graphics"
output:
  html_document:
    toc: yes
    code_download: true
---

```{r global_options, include=FALSE}
knitr::opts_chunk$set(collapse=TRUE)
```

```{r, include = FALSE}
library(dplyr)
library(ggplot2)
library(lattice)
library(gridExtra)
set.seed(12345)
```

## Background

The _Grammar of Graphics_ is a language proposed by Leland Wilkinson
for describing statistical graphs.

* Wilkinson, L. (2005), _The Grammar of Graphics_, 2nd ed., Springer.

The grammar of graphics has served as the foundation for the graphics
frameworks in [SPSS](https://www.ibm.com/products/spss-statistics),
[Vega-Lite](https://vega.github.io/vega-lite/) and several other
systems.

`ggplot2` represents an implementation and extension of the grammar
of graphics for R.

* Wickham, H. (2016), _ggplot2: Elegant Graphics for Data Analysis_,
  2nd ed., Springer.
* On line documentation: <http://docs.ggplot2.org/>.
* Wickham. H., and Grolemund, G. (2016),
  [_R for Data Science_](http://r4ds.had.co.nz/), O'Reilly.
* [Data visualization cheatsheet](https://github.com/rstudio/cheatsheets/raw/master/data-visualization-2.1.pdf)
* Winston Chang (in preparation), [_R Graphics Cookbook_, 2nd
  edition](https://r-graphics.org/), O’Reilly. ([Book source on
  GitHub](https://github.com/wch/rgcookbook))
  
The idea is that any basic plot can be built out of a combination of

* a data set;
* one or more geometrical representation (_geoms_);
* mappings of values to _aesthetic_ features of the geom;
* a _stat_ to produce values to be mapped;
* position adjustments;
* a coordinate system;
* a scale specification;
* a faceting scheme.

`ggplot2` provides tools for specifying these components and adjusting
their features.

Many components and features are provided by default and do not need
to be specified explicitly unless the defaults are to be changed.


## A Basic Template

The simplest graph needs a data set, a geom, and a mapping:

```r
ggplot(data = <DATA>) + <GEOM>(mapping = aes(<MAPPINGS>))
```

The appearance of geom objects is controlled by _aesthetic_ features.

Each geom has some required and some optional aesthetics.

For `geom_point` the required aesthetics are

* `x` position
* `y` position.

Optional aesthetics include

* `color`
* `fill`
* `shape`
* `size`

```{r}
ggplot(mpg) + geom_point(aes(x = displ, y = hwy, color = class))
ggplot(mpg) + geom_point(aes(x = displ, y = hwy, color = class, shape = factor(cyl)))
```

Aesthetics can be mapped to a variable or set to a fixed common value.
This can be used to override default settings:

```{r}
ggplot(mpg) + geom_point(aes(x = displ, y = hwy), color = "blue", shape = 1)
```

Available point shapes are specified by number:

```{r, echo = FALSE, eval = FALSE}
generateRPointShapes<-function(){
  oldPar<-par()
  par(font=2, mar=c(0.5,0,0,0))
  y=rev(c(rep(1,6),rep(2,5), rep(3,5), rep(4,5), rep(5,5)))
  x=c(rep(1:5,5),6)
  plot(x, y, pch = 0:25, cex=1.5, ylim=c(1,5.5), xlim=c(1,6.5),
       axes=FALSE, xlab="", ylab="", bg="blue")
  text(x, y, labels=0:25, pos=3)
  par(mar=oldPar$mar,font=oldPar$font )
}
generateRPointShapes()
```
```{r, echo = FALSE}
ggplot(NULL, aes(x = rep(1:5, 5), y = rev(rep(1:5, each = 5)))) +
    geom_point(shape = 1:25, size = 5, fill = "blue") +
    geom_text(aes(label = 1 : 25), nudge_y = 0.25, size = 6) +
    theme_void()
```

Shapes 1--19 have their color set by the `color` aesthetic and ignore
the `fill` aesthetic.

For shapes 21--25 the `color` aesthetic specifies the border color and
`fill` specifies the interior color.

```{r}
ggplot(mutate(mpg, cyl = factor(cyl))) +
    geom_point(aes(x = displ, y = hwy, fill = cyl),
               shape = 21, size = 4)
```

Specifying a new default is very different from specifying a constant
value as an aesthetic, which is rarely what you want:

```{r}
ggplot(mpg) + geom_point(aes(x = displ, y = hwy, color = "blue"))
```


## Geometric Objects

`ggplot2` provides a number of geoms:

```{r, echo = FALSE, results = "asis"}
showList <- function(v, ncol = 4, pad = 2) {
    w <- max(nchar(v)) + pad
    nrow <- ceiling(length(v) / ncol)
    v <- c(v, character(ncol * nrow - length(v)))

    cat("```r\n")
    for (i in seq_len(nrow)) {
        line <- v[ncol * (i - 1) + (1 : ncol)]
        for (j in 1 : ncol)
            if (j < ncol)
                cat(sprintf("%-*s", w, line[j]))
            else
                cat(sprintf("%s\n", line[j]))
        ## cat(sprintf("%-*s%-*s%-*s%s\n",
        ##             w, line[1], w, line[2], w, line[3], line[4]))
    }
    cat("```\n")
}
showList(ls("package:ggplot2", pat = "^geom_"))
```

Additional geoms are available in packages like `ggforce`, `ggridges`,
and others described on the [`ggplot2` extensions
site](https://www.ggplot2-exts.org).

Geoms can be added as layers to a plot.

Mappings common to all, or most, geoms can be specified in the `ggplot` call:

```{r, message = FALSE}
ggplot(mpg, aes(x = displ, y = hwy)) +  geom_smooth() + geom_point()
```

Geoms can also use different data sets. This was used to show muted
views of the full data in faceted plots.

<!-- variant of code in prercep.Rmd -->
```{r, fig.width = 8}
library(gapminder)
gd <- filter(gapminder, year %in% c(1977, 1987, 1997, 2007))
ggplot(gd, aes(x = gdpPercap, y = lifeExp, color = continent)) +
    geom_point(data = mutate(gd, year = NULL), color = "grey80") +
    geom_point(size = 2.5) +
    scale_x_log10() +
    facet_wrap(~ year)
```


## Statistical Transformations

All geoms use a statistical transformation (_stat_) to convert raw
data to the values to be mapped to the object's features.

The available stats are

```{r, echo = FALSE, results = "asis"}
showList(ls("package:ggplot2", pat = "^stat_"), ncol = 3)
```

Each geom has a default stat, and each stat has a default geom.

* For `geom_point` the default stat is `stat_identity`.

* For `geom_bar` the default stat is `stat_count`.

* For `geom_histogram` the default is `stat_bin`.

Stats can provide _computed variables_ that can be referenced as
`..<variable>..`.

For `stat_bin` some of the computed variables are

* `count`: number of points in bin
* `density`: density of points in bin, scaled to integrate to 1

By default, `geom_histogram` uses `y = ..count..`.

```{r}
ggplot(faithful) +
    geom_histogram(aes(x = eruptions),
                   binwidth = 0.25, fill = "grey", color = "black")
```

Using `y = ..density..` produces a density scaled axis.

```{r}
p <- ggplot(faithful) +
    geom_histogram(aes(x = eruptions, y = ..density..),
                   binwidth = 0.25, fill = "grey", color = "black")
p
```

`stat_function` can be used to add a density curve specified as a
mixture of two normal densities:

```{r}
ms <- mutate(faithful, type = ifelse(eruptions < 3, "short", "long")) %>%
    group_by(type) %>%
    summarize(mean = mean(eruptions), sd = sd(eruptions), n = n()) %>%
    mutate(p = n / sum(n))
f <- function(x)
    ms$p[1] * dnorm(x, ms$mean[1], ms$sd[1]) +
    ms$p[2] * dnorm(x, ms$mean[2], ms$sd[2])
p + stat_function(fun = f, color = "red")
```


## Position Adjustments

The available position adjustments:

```{r, echo = FALSE, results = "asis"}
showList(ls("package:ggplot2", pat = "^position_"), ncol = 3)
```

For bar charts these allow choosing between stacked and side-by-side
charts.

The default is `position_stack`:

```{r}
ggplot(diamonds, aes(x = cut, fill = clarity)) + geom_bar(position = "stack")
```

`position_dodge` produces side-by-side bar charts:

```{r}
ggplot(diamonds, aes(x = cut, fill = clarity)) + geom_bar(position = "dodge")
```

`position_fill` rescales all bars to be equal height to help compare
proportions within bars.

Specifying `y = ..prop..` produces a better `y` axis label.

```{r}
ggplot(diamonds, aes(x = cut, fill = clarity)) + geom_bar(position = "fill")
```

Using the counts to scale the widths produces a _spine plot_, a
variant of a _mosaic plot_. This is easiest to do with the `ggmosaic`
package.

`position_jitter` can be used with `geom_point` to avoid overplotting
or break up rounding artifacts.

Another version of the Old Faithful data available as `geyser` in
package `MASS` has some rounding in the `duration` variable:
	
```{r}
data(geyser, package = "MASS")

## Adjust for different meaning of `waiting` variable
geyser2 <- na.omit(mutate(geyser, duration = lag(duration)))

p <- ggplot(geyser2, aes(x = duration, y = waiting))
p + geom_point()
```

The default amount of jittering isn't quite enough in this case:

```{r}
p + geom_point(position = "jitter")
```

To jitter only horizontally and by a larger amount you can use

```{r}
p + geom_point(position = position_jitter(height = 0, width = 0.1))
```


## Coordinate Systems

Coordinate system functions include

```{r, echo = FALSE, results = "asis"}
showList(ls("package:ggplot2", pat = "^coord_"))
```


### Cartesian Coordinates

The default coordinate system is `coord_cartesian`.

`coord_cartesian` can be used to _zoom in_ on a particular regiion:

```{r}
p + geom_point() + coord_cartesian(xlim=c(3,4))
```

`coord_fixed` and `coord_equal` fix the _aspect ratio_ for a cartesian
coordinate system.

The aspect ratio is the ratio of the number physical display units per
`y` unit to the number of physical display units par `x` unit.

The aspect ratio can be important for recognizing features and patterns.

```{r, fig.height = 2}
river <- scan("https://www.stat.uiowa.edu/~luke/data/river.dat")
r <- data.frame(flow = river, month = seq_along(river))
ggplot(r, aes(x = month, y = flow)) +
    geom_point() +
    coord_fixed(ratio = 4)
```


### Polar Coordinates

A filled bar chart like

```{r}
p <- ggplot(diamonds) + geom_bar(aes(x = 1, fill = cut), position = "fill")
p
```

is turned into a pie chart by changing to polar coordinates:

```{r}
p + coord_polar(theta = "y")
```


### Coordinate Systems for Maps

Coordinate systems are particularly important for maps.

Polygons for many polotical and geographic boundaries are available
through the `map_data` function.

```{r}
usa <- map_data("state")
```

Polygon vertices are encoded by longitude and latitude. Plotting these
in the default cartesian coordinate system usually does not work well:

```{r}
m <- ggplot(usa, aes(x = long, y = lat, group = group)) +
    geom_polygon(fill = "white", color = "black")
m
```

Using a fixed aspect ratio is better, but an aspect ratio of 1 does
not work well:

```{r}
m + coord_equal()
```

The problem is that away from the equator a one degree change in
latitude corresponds to a larger distance than a one degree change in
longitude.

The ratio of one degree longitude separation to one degree latitude
separation for the latitude at the middle of iowa of 41 degrees is


```{r}
longlat <- cos(41/90 * pi /2)
longlat
```

A better map is obtained using the aspect ration `1 / longlat`:

```{r}
m + coord_fixed(1 / longlat)
```

The best approach to use a coordinate system designed specifically for
maps.

```{r}
m + coord_map()
```

There are many projections used in map making; the default projection
used by `coord_map` is the
[Mercator](https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mercator_projection)
projection.

Proper map projections are non-linear; this is easier to see with an
Albers projection:

```{r}
m + coord_map("albers", 20, 50)
```


## Scales

Scales are used for controlling the mapping of values to physical
representations such as colors, shapes, and positions.

Scale functions are also responsible for producing _guides_ for
translating physical representations back to values, such as

* axis labels and marks;

* color or shape legends.

There are `r length(ls("package:ggplot2", pat = "scale_"))` scale
functions; some examples are

```r
scale_color_gradient      scale_shape_manual     scale_x_log10
scale_color_identity	  scale_size_area		 scale_y_log10
scale_fill_gradient                              scale_x_sqrt
scale_fill_manual                                scale_y_sqrt

```

Start with a basic plot:
```{r}
p <- ggplot(mpg, aes(x = displ, y = hwy)) + geom_point()
p
```

Remove the tick marks and labels (this can also be done with theme settings):
```{r}
p + scale_x_continuous(labels = NULL, breaks = NULL)
```

Change the tick locations and labels:
```{r}
p + scale_x_continuous(labels = paste(c(2, 4, 6), "ltr"), breaks = c(2, 4, 6))
```

Use a logarithmic axis:
```{r}
p + scale_x_log10(labels = paste(c(2, 4, 6), "ltr"),
                  breaks = c(2, 4, 6),
                  minor_breaks = c(3, 5, 7))
```

The
[Scales](http://r4ds.had.co.nz/graphics-for-communication.html#scales)
section in [R for Data Science](http://r4ds.had.co.nz/) provides some
more details.

Color assignment can also be controlled by scale functions. For example,
for some presidential approval ratings data

```{r}
pr_appr <- data.frame(pres = c("Obama", "Carter", "Clinton",
                               "G.W. Bush", "Reagan", "G.H.W Bush", "Trump"),
                      appr = c(79, 78, 68, 65, 58, 56, 40),
                      party = c("D", "D", "D", "R", "R", "R", "R"),
                      year = c(2009, 1977, 1993, 2001, 1981, 1989, 2017))
pr_appr <- mutate(pr_appr, pres = reorder(pres, appr))
```

the common assignment of red for republican and blue for democrat can
be obtained by

```{r}
ggplot(pr_appr, aes(x = pres, y = appr, fill = party)) +
    geom_col() + coord_flip() +
    scale_fill_manual(values = c(R = "red", D = "blue")) 
```


## Themes

`ggplot2` supports the notion of _themes_ for adjusting non-data
appearance aspects of a plot, such as

* plot titles
* axis and legend placement and titles
* background colors
* guide line placement

Theme elements can be customized in several ways:

* `theme` can be used to adjust individual elements in a plot.
* `theme_set` adjusts default settings for a session;
* pre-defined theme functions allow consistent style changes.

The
[full documentation](http://ggplot2.tidyverse.org/reference/theme.html)
of the `theme` function lists many customizable elements.

One simple example:

```{r}
ggplot(mutate(mpg, cyl = factor(cyl))) +
    geom_point(aes(x = displ, y = hwy, fill = cyl),
               shape = 21, size = 3) +
    theme(legend.position = "top",
          axis.text = element_text(size = 12),
          axis.title = element_text(size = 14, face = "bold"))
```

Another example:

```{r}
gthm <- theme(plot.background = element_rect(fill = "lightblue", color = NA),
              panel.background = element_rect(fill = "lightblue2"))
p + gthm
```

Some alternate complete themes provided by `ggplot2` are

```r
theme_bw        theme_gray      theme_minimal   theme_void
theme_classic   theme_grey      theme_dark      theme_light
```

Some examples:

```{r}
p_bw <- p + theme_bw() + ggtitle("BW")
p_classic <- p + theme_classic() + ggtitle("Classic")
p_min <- p + theme_minimal() + ggtitle("Minimal")
p_void <- p + theme_void() + ggtitle("Void")
grid.arrange(p_bw, p_classic, p_min, p_void, nrow = 2)
```

The
[`ggthemes`](http://www.rpubs.com/Mentors_Ubiqum/ggthemes_1)
package provides some additional themes. Some examples:

```{r}
library(ggthemes)
p_econ <- p + theme_economist() + ggtitle("Economist")
p_wsj <- p + theme_wsj() + ggtitle("WSJ")
p_tufte <- p + theme_tufte() + ggtitle("Tufte")
p_few <- p + theme_few() + ggtitle("Few")
grid.arrange(p_econ, p_wsj, p_tufte, p_few, nrow = 2)
```	

`ggthemes` also provides `theme_map` that removes unnecessary elements
from maps:

```{r}
m + coord_map() + theme_map()
```

The
[Themes](http://r4ds.had.co.nz/graphics-for-communication.html#themes)
section in [R for Data Science](http://r4ds.had.co.nz/) provides some
more details.


## Facets

Faceting uses the _small multiples_ approach to introduce additional
variables.

For a single variable `facet_wrap` is usually used:

```{r}
p <- ggplot(mpg) + geom_point(aes(x = displ, y = hwy))
p + facet_wrap(~ class)
```

For two variables, each with a modest number of categories,
`facet_grid` can be effective:

```{r}
p + facet_grid(factor(cyl) ~ drv)
```

Usually facets use common axis scales, but one or both can be allowed
to vary.

A useful approach for showing time series data with a good aspect
ration can be to split the data into facets for non-overlapping
portions of the time axis.

```{r}
rd <- data.frame(month = seq_along(river),
                 flow = river,
                 panel = cut(seq_along(river), 4))
ggplot(rd, aes(x = month, y = flow)) +
    geom_point() +
    facet_wrap(~ panel, scale = "free_x", ncol = 1)
```

Facet arrangement can also be used to convey other information, such
as geographic location.

The [`geofacet` package](https://hafen.github.io/geofacet/) allows
facets to be placed in approximate locations of different geographic
regions.

An example for data from US states:

```{r, message = FALSE}
library(geofacet)
ggplot(state_unemp, aes(year, rate)) +
    geom_line() +
    facet_geo(~ state, grid = "us_state_grid2", label = "name") +
    scale_x_continuous(labels = function(x) paste0("'", substr(x, 3, 4))) +
    labs(title = "Seasonally Adjusted US Unemployment Rate 2000-2016",
       caption = "Data Source: bls.gov",
    x = "Year",
    y = "Unemployment Rate (%)") +
  theme(strip.text.x = element_text(size = 6))
```

Arrangement according to a calendar is also useful.


## A More Complete Template

```r
ggplot(data = <DATA>) +
    <GEOM>(mapping = aes(<MAPPINGS>),
           stat = <STAT>,
           position = <POSITION>) +
    < ... MORE GEOMS ... > +
    <COORDINATE_ADJUSTMENT> +
    <SCALE_ADJUSTMENT> +
    <FACETING> +
    <THEME_ADJUSTMENT>
```


## Interaction

The `ggplotly` function in the [`plotly` package](https://plot.ly/r/)
can be used to add some interactive features to a plot created with
`ggplot2`.

* In an R session a call to `ggplotly` opens a browser window with the
  interactive plot.
* In an Rmarkdown document the interactive plot is embedded in the
  `html` file.

```{r, message = FALSE}
library(plotly)
p <- ggplot(mutate(mpg, cyl = factor(cyl))) +
    geom_point(aes(x = displ, y = hwy, fill = cyl),
               shape = 21, size = 3)
ggplotly(p)
```

Adding a `text` aesthetic allows the tooltip display to be customized:

```{r, message = FALSE}
p <- ggplot(mutate(mpg, cyl = factor(cyl))) +
    geom_point(aes(x = displ, y = hwy, fill = cyl,
                   text = paste(year, manufacturer, model)),
               shape = 21, size = 3)
ggplotly(p, tooltip = "text") %>%
    style(hoverlabel = list(bgcolor = "white"))
```

## Notes

* There have been several efforts to develop a grammar of interactive
  graphics, including [`ggvis`](http://ggvis.rstudio.com/) and
  [`animint`](https://tdhock.github.io/animint/); neither seems to be
  under active development at this time.

* A promising approach is
  [Vega-Lite](https://vega.github.io/vega-lite), with a Python
  interface [Altair](https://altair-viz.github.io/) and an R interface
  [altair](https://vegawidget.github.io/altair/) to the Python
  interface.

* A recent project
  [`gganimate`](https://github.com/thomasp85/gganimate) to add
  animation to `ggplot` looks very promising.

* A number of other [`ggplot`
  extensions](https://exts.ggplot2.tidyverse.org/) are available.

* A [recent blog
  post](https://medium.com/bbc-visual-and-data-journalism/how-the-bbc-visual-and-data-journalism-team-works-with-graphics-in-r-ed0b35693535)
  explains how the [BBC Visual and Data
  Journalism](https://medium.com/bbc-visual-and-data-journalism) team
  creates their graphics. More details are provided in an [_R cook
  book_](https://bbc.github.io/rcookbook/).

* A [blog
  post](https://blog.revolutionanalytics.com/2016/07/data-journalism-with-r-at-538.html)
  on use of R and `ggplot` by
  [FiveThirtyEight](https://fivethirtyeight.com/).  The `ggthemes`
  packages includes `theme_fivethirtyeight` to emulate their style.

```{r, error = TRUE}
rub <- read.csv("rubber.csv")

library(altair)

chartTH <- alt$Chart(rub)$
    mark_point()$
    encode(
        x = alt$X("H:Q", scale = alt$Scale(domain = range(rub$H))),
        y = alt$Y("T:Q", scale = alt$Scale(domain = range(rub$T))))

brush <- alt$selection_interval()

chartTH_brush <- chartTH$add_selection(brush)

chartTH_selection <- 
  chartTH_brush$encode(
    color = alt$condition(brush, "Origin:N", alt$value("lightgray"))
  )

chartAT <- chartTH_selection$
    encode(
        x = alt$X("T:Q", scale = alt$Scale(domain = range(rub$T))),
        y = alt$Y("A:Q", scale = alt$Scale(domain = range(rub$A))))

chartAT | chartTH_selection
```


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mode: poly-markdown+R
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